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Spiritual styles

Across the broad spectrum of Christian experience, people connect with God and make sense of the world around them in different ways.

"In books and articles, notably Educating Faith and Conversations that Change Us, Joyce Bellous identified four pathways of spiritual expression, four spiritual preferences or styles: Word, Emotion, Symbol and Action. David Csinos relied on these styles in his research into children's spirituality and religious expression in his book Children’s ministry that fits: beyond one-size-fits-all approaches to nurturing children’s spirituality. They proclaim that difference is healthy, natural, valuable and creative."

An understanding of the different ways in which people make meaningful connections with God can be a valuable tool in devising and preparing worship that can engage everyone – whatever their age, wherever they are on their spiritual journey.

ROOTS commissioned a series of six articles from Dave Csinos to introduce leaders to the spiritual styles and discover practical ways to prepare worship. By way of introduction to spiritual styles, why not take a look at three of these articles?


  • Read David's first article – Different ways of knowing God
    This overview introduces the concept of spiritual styles or preferences.
  • Find out more – Meet the styles
    Meet children and adults who use Word, Symbol, Emotion and Action in different ways to experience God and make sense of the world around them.
  • Find out more - Praying with style
    How to nurture different styles of prayer.

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Watch David Csinos introducing the series on YouTube.

 Dave Csinos


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